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Petroleum as nigerias major source of income

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Petroleum as nigerian’s major source of income.

On this article we are going to discuss what is petroleum and why it is Nigerians major source of income.

Table of content 

  • What is petroleum
  • Major inportance of petroleum
  • Uses of petroleum.
  • Petroleum producing states.

What is petroleum?

Petroleum can be described as a dark,viscous liquid found naturally on beds of porous rocks beneath the earth surface. It is a very important natural mineral oil. Some of the produce of petroleum are diesel,fuel,grease and others.

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Brief explanation on how petroleum is formed.

Bitumen,consisting of petroleum,natural gas and asphalt I’d widely used around the world. Petroleum is said to have been formed from the decay of animals and plants,under very high pressure and extremely high temperature.

The petroleum rests on water,while on top of it is found natural gas. All three natural gas,petroleum and water finally got trapped between two layers of rock that would not let them escape,thereby forming the pool of petroleum known as an oil trap or oil reservoir.

Petroleum is pumped out when geologist and engineers drill oil wells into this, the flow being controlled by valves.

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Discovery of petroleum in Nigeria 

In Nigeria,the petroleum industry began to develop at about the time of the second world war.

Oil prospecting efforts in the country began at about this time,although it was not until about twenty years later that the first barrel of oil was produced.

It is therefore not surprising that nobody expected petroleum to emerge later as a mineral upon which the Nigeria economy would become almost totally dependent for its foreign exchange earnings.

contribution of petroleum to the Nigeria economy.

The impact of petroleum on Nigeria can be seen in all sector of the economy. however while some impacts have been positive others have been negative, we shall now take a look at both sides of the coin.

Positive contribution of petroleum of the Nigeria economy

Petroleum has made the following positive contributions to the Nigeria economy.

  • Increase in external trade.
  • Greater employment opportunities
  • Increase in government revenue
  • Increase in foreign exchange reserves
  • Greater capital formation.
  • Benefit of linkage effects.

Greater employment opportunities

The development of the petroleum industry in Nigeria has led to the creation of lots of employment opportunities for the nationals. Although the industry is highly capital intensive and has a greater requirements for skilled managerial,administrative and professional labour.

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Increase in government revenue

The emergency of petroleum as a growth sector of the Nigerian economy has placed more revenue at the disposal of the countrys government for instance the greatest direct tax revenue of the government is contributed by petroleum profit tax.

Increase in government revenue

 

The emergency of petroleum as a growth sector of Nigeria economy has place more revenue at the disposal of the country governments. For instance in government in contributed by petroleum profit tax.

Increase in foreign exchange reserves

As the country largest export product by value petroleum is also the greatest earners of foreign exchange for nigeria. It is doubtful whether all the extension construction work that took place in the country.

Negative effects of petroleum on the Nigeria economy

  1. Destruction of the agriculture base.
  2. Advertise effect of oil spillage.
  3. Atmospheric pollution.
  4. Monocultural demonstration effects in creased propensity to consume imported goods.
  5. Culture of corruption.
  6. Lastly dept creation.

Destruction of the agriculture base

the most damaging effect of petroleum on the Nigeria economy is the destruction of the commercial production of oil began,Nigeria depends on for her foreign exchange earnings on exports of agricultural commodities like cocoa,palm oil and grains from the western ,eastern and northern regions respectively.

Adverse effect of oil spillage

Oil spillage means the overflowing of petroleum from oil wells or pipe lines into immediate vicinity,which could be water or land.

Atmospheric pollution

This is another adverse effect of petroleum production on the Nigeria economy. In oil production areas gas flaring is a common sight as a mere visit to port Harcourt will confirm.the burning causes pollution of the atmosphere by releasing causes pollution of the atmosphere by releasing hydrocarbon into the air.

Culture of corruption

Petroleum has also increased the list of social vices in the country. Consequent upon huge inflow of money is caused,contract awards were freely and carelessly made.

Dept creation

It is a paradox that petroleum production and exportation created huge debts for Nigeria. The oil money that flowed in the oil money that flowed in 1970s boosted the international credit worthiness of the country.

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How To Read In Passing Your Exams

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Complete act of reading 

Reading is a way of building up what has what has been put down in written form.

The written symbols are used to form words or sentences,which are are in turn expected to be represent certain information or intension. Reading is thus a form of communication during which the content,challenges and claims made by a writer are gone over by the reader who tries to capture the substance of written materials. In certain instances the activities may involve reading aloud while most others situation may involve silent reading.

Some of the principal factors that influences ones level of understanding during reading are been listed below.

  1. Use of ones past experience
  2. Connection of the different points being made.
  3. Structure of the sentence.
  4. Vocabulary selection.
  5. Identification of the style of the text.

Increase Reading speed

The speed at which a text is read questions accurately answered on it called reading speed. Reading speed will depend on the level of difficulty of the text and the purpose for which one is reading. When we read a text and very closely and carefully we engaged in intensive reading .this involves examining all the particular details of the text intensive reading. the reader reaction after the  intensive reading may involve weighing the points mentioned or the argument material that often required to make an evaluative judgment.

Material that often require intensive reading increases include editorials,letters,memoranda,examination questions,reports and very important passages and text book.

Spread reading

Under this kind of reading questions the reader makes a very great use of expanded eye span or sweep of the eyes with the aim of going over the reading material at a greet speed. The material being read may be a novel or a news paper.

The reader may only slow down when a particular point of interest is made. Speed reading may be employed to obtain the gist or the main substance in a text. It may also be used when the reader is scanning for a particular piece of information.

As earlier mentioned,the strand of speed reading most relevant for certain activities. Example include those listed below:

  • Going through a novel.
  • Going through references.
  • Reading a newspaper.
  • Watching the last part of a film on the screen
  • Reading notice along the traffic.

Some of the equipment used for training speed reading include the tachistoscope,the flashcards, reproduced paragraphs,whole chapters and other standardized text.

In the absence of these materials the students can organize themselves to engage in peen or within class competition. Stating the objective before reading is very important, using before questions is also important.

Reading for literal understanding

You may go through a text to identify a point or points stated outwardly or directly by the writer when we read what has been stated directly, we are involved in lateral comprehension through this is usually a basic or elementary level of reading,it can sometimes be very cchallenging depending on the writer language used.

Some Literal comprehension questions you may encounter

Below are some literal comprehension questions you may encounter:

  1. Which university is Fr. James and alumus of?
  2. Who ordained Fr. James daman
  3. What order does fr.James DA man to?
  4. When was fr. James daman born

Most literal comprehension questions are usually direct consequently answers to them are Al’s expected to be direct. The answers must not be more detailed than the required. The student may use some of the words is to be preferred.

This is because the response expression in ones word Will reflect accurately the degree or level of ones understanding.

Sometimes the information In a text may modified or transformed through the use of an expression or an unfamiliar word.

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PARENTAL UPBRINGING

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Need to be taught on how to behave in the society

The physical emotional and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Also parenting refers to the intricacies of Raising a child aside from the biological relationship.

The most common care taker in parenting in the question, although others at  an older sibling,a grandparents,a legal guardian,aunt or other family members or friends. Government and society may have a role in child rearing as well.

who is responsible ?

The task of imparting integrated sex education falls on all,but principally on society and family. The duty of civil society to bequeath to its members healthy altitudes,practice and benefits through its cultural values and educational system in gravely important,but we have seen that many civil society are wanting when it comes to healthy sexual beliefs,altitude and practice.the shortfall naturally filters into the design of the curricular they have for their schools. That leaves religious societies and the family as the last hope of this to I’m par genuine Integrated education to the children.

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He further opines that parenting have both the duty and right to be the first and the Principal educator of their children.

Subscribing to the above statements kure Emmanuel asserts that the primary duty of imparting sex education in young children rests on parents.

Need to be taught on how to behave in the society

Roles of the parent

It must always be carried out under their attentive guidance,whether at home or in educational centers chosen and controlled by them. In the light of the above statement,the church reaffirms this in a sense of solidarity,that schools inbound to observed when it cooperates in sex education entering into the same spirit that animates the parents.

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Futhermore, the spokes person says that the parent have the duty to discuss relevant matters with their children,but they ought to do so in a manner that is appropriate and discreet. Being the ones to lay in their children adequate foundation for a heathy sex life through informal sex education appropriate adapted to the age of the child, parents have duty to help their children among others things to understand appreciate and respect their bodies to embrace the virtue of self control, self discipline and chastity to love purity of mind and body to cultivate an attitude of self control ,self discipline an attitude of self giving to know the limits of their legitimate boundaries and soon.

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the time for total silence on such issues is over parents should be able to discuss with their children in a manner that is candid and appropriate.

Pressure of different kind

A secondary school student once shared with me how her school nurse while offering them basic education showed ways to keep from getting pregnant and finished by saying that the only method that is 100 percent guaranteed in not engaging in malicious act at all course.

This little episode illustrate another way our kids are being pressured into marital affairs. This education is presented in our public schools. The problem is when this field is presented without a moral foundation,students are left with no reason not to try out what they have been taught. When for instance the course material states that an orgasm feels great what does he or she ought feels  great,what does he or she ought to do? He or she wants to try it out to do? He or she wants to try it out and feel how great to how great it is. After all it isn’t very practical to tell him to wait. To paraphrase the old saying a little knowledge about sex without any standards to govern activity can be a dangerous things especially knowledge without moral guidelines.

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Therefore onyebuchi is of the view that parents need to pay close attention to the type of sex education their children get a school.

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